• warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 1554.
  • warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 1557.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 1004.
  • warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 1004.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 679.
  • warning: date(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 679.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2756.
  • warning: mktime(): It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected the timezone 'UTC' for now, but please set date.timezone to select your timezone. in /home/zparish/public_html/modules/event/event.module on line 2757.

3a. L-oriġini tad-devozzjoni lejn Santa Katerina fl-Ewropa u f’Malta (miktub bil-Malti)

Kitba ta' C. Rolé

  

Il-Kult lejn Santa Katerina jinxtered mal-Ewropa kollha

 

Għalkemm bosta kitbiet tas-seklu VI jiddeskrivu il-ħajja u l-martirju ta' Santa Katerina, is-seklu VII jagħraf il-qofol tal-kult lejn il-qaddisa patruna tagħna. Ġurnata fost l-oħrajn, wieħed mill-monaċi ta' Sinai, kellu viżjoni anġelika, dwar post fejn kien hemm tfajla martri midfuna. Dan il-monaku, flimkien ma' sħabu, b'ħeġġa liema bħalha, marru f'dan il-post u hemm sabu l-fdalijiet ta' Santa Katerina ġewwa għar. L-inħawi fejn instabu l-għadam ta' din il-qaddisa huma meqjuma sal-lum u baqg]u magħrufa bħala 'Ġebel Katerina'. Dan il-post jinsab fuq l-istess muntanja ftit 'il fuq mill-monasteru (Farrugia, 2005). L-għadam tal-qaddisa ttieħed fil-monasteru ta' Sinai u ġew midfuna fil-kappella prinċipali, preċiżament fuq wieħed mill-ġnub tal-artal maġġur. Aktarx l-għadam ma tħalliex f'' Ġebel Katerina' minħabba l-invażjonijiet ħorox li kienu jsiru mill-Misilmin f'dik l-epoka (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978). Il-monaċi kienu jafu sew li Mawmettu ma kien qatt ser jattakka l-monasteru ta' Sinai minħabba r-rispett li kellu lejhom għal dak kollu li kienu għamlu miegħu ftit taż-żmien qabel. B'hekk l-għadam ta' Santa Katerina u possibilment ta' xi qaddisin oħra setagħu jinżammu bħala relikwi bla ebda biża' li jiħu mitlufa (Farrugia, 2005). Id-devozzjoni lejn Santa Katerina f'dan il-monasteru kibret b'tali mod, li l-monasteru ħa isem il-qaddisa (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978).

 

'Il-gwerra qaddisa'... hekk kienet msejjħa l-battalja mdemmija mifruxa fuq mitejn sena bejn l-Insara u l-Misilmin, gwerra li fiha ġġieldu elejjef ta' suldati sabiex terġa' tintrebaħ l-Art Qaddisa (Runciman, 1992). Sabiex jakkwistaw l-indulġenzi, il-kavallieri tal-kruċjati kienu jmorru bi ħġarhom għal dawn il-battalji u waqt il-vjaġġ tagħhom lura lejn pajjiżhom, kienu jaqsmu l-esperjenzi u r-rakkonti ta' dawn il-gwerer mal-insara fil-bliet fejn kienu jieqfu jistrieħu. Il-kavallieri kienu wkoll jirrakkuntaw il-ħajja ta' xi qaddisin jew martri ġodda li jkunu saru jafu bihom fl-inħawi tal-Artijiet Mqaddsa. Fost dawn il-qaddisin, insibu lil Santa Katerina, San Ġorġ, San Nikola u oħrajn. B'hekk fis-seklu X, il-kult lejn Santa Katerina seta' beda jinxtered fil-punent tal-Ewropa. Xi studjużi jaħsbu li aktarx il-kavallieri tal-kruċjati kienu iqattaw xi żmien fil-monasteru ta' Sinai, però aktarx ħadd minnhom ma qatt żar il-post "Ġebel Katerina' minħabba li hu prattikament inaċċessibli (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978).

 

Fis-seklu XI, xi ftit mill-fdalijiet ta' Santa Katerina ttieħdu ġewwa Franza minn Xmun, monaku ta' Sinai. Dawn il-fdalijiet tqiegħdu fl-abbazija ta' Trinité-au-Mont li iktar tard ħadet l-isem ta' Sainte Catherine-au-Mont (Farrugia, 2005). Il-vjaġġ ta' Xmun huwa dokumentat f'numru ta' kitbiet, fosthom il-kroniċi ta' Ugo de Flavigny u fil-'Chronicon Triplex' (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978). Studji juru li f'nofs is-seklu XI, kienet diġà tiġi ċċelebrata festa ad unur tal-qaddisa Santa Katerina ġewwa din l-abbazija (Farrugia, 2005). Minn ġo din l-abbazija, d-devozzjoni lejn Santa Katerina nxterdet ma' Franza kollha u iktar tard mal-Italia u pajjiżi oħra fil-punent tal-Ewropa. Infatti, f'Napli wieħed jista' jara xi xbihat ta' din il-qaddisa fil-katakombi ta' San Ġennaro, li jmuru lura għas-seklu XI (Scudu, 2005).

  

Il-festa liturġika ta' Santa Katerina kienet tiġi ċċelebrata fis-seklu XIII (u possibilment anki qabel) mill-Benedittini, Ċisterċensi u Klunjaċensi flimkien ma' xi patrijiet tal-ordnijiet mendikanti (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978). Fl-istess seklu, Santa Katerina ġiet ukoll maħtura bħala patruna tal-fakultà tat-teoloġija f'Sorbonne, l-ewwel Università tad-dinja (Farrugia, 2005). Dawn l-istudenti tat-teoloġija flimkien ma' dawk tal-filosofija, kienu jmorru f'purċissjoni lejn il-knisja ta' Sainte-Catherine-de-la Couture sabiex jiċċelebraw il-festa tagħha. Il-festa liturġika ta' Santa Katerina ġiet introdotta fil-kalendarju ruman fis-seklu XIII u fis-seklu XIV  ġiet ikkonsidrata obbligatorja fil-knejjes tal-Punent waqt il-pontifikat tal-Papa Ġwanni XXII (1316-1334) (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978).

 

Il-bidu tal-kult lejn Santa Katerina fil-gżejjer Maltin

 

Għalkemm nafu verament ftit fuq l-ewwel snin tal-kristjaneżmu f'Malta, nafu fiċ-ċert li lejn l-aħħar tas-seklu VI, Malta kellha Isqof li kien marbut ħafna mal-Provinċja ta' Sqallija. F'dan is-seklu, Sqallija għaddiet taħt it-tmexxija ta' Konstantinopli, u l-istess seħħ għall-gżejjer Maltin. B'hekk, f'Malta f'dawn iż-żminijiet, seta' daħal il-kult lejn bosta qaddisin tal-Lvant, fosthom Santa Katerina. Ir-rabta bejn Malta u l-Lvant tal-Meditterran setgħet kompliet tissaħħaħ bil-wasla ta' bosta refuġjati mit-tramuntana ta' l-Afrika li kienu jaħarbu mill-persekuzzjoni tal-barbari. Għalkemm s'issa qatt ma nstabu provi, dawn ir-refuġjati setgħu ukoll ħabu magħhom il-kult lejn din il-qaddisa. Jekk il-poplu Malti kellu devozzjoni lejn Santa Katerina qabel is-sena 870, ftit huma l-possibilitajiet li l-kult lejn din il-qaddisa rnexxielu jibqa' ħaj tul il-ħakma Għarbija (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978).

 

Kien id-29 t'Awissu tat-870 A.D. meta fuq il-gżejjer Maltin ħakmet l-id bix-ximitarra, ix-xabla Għarbija (Wettinger, 1986). Ma nistgħux ngħidu li taħt l-Għarab kien żmien pjaċevoli, anzi kollox il-kuntrarju għax meta l-Għarab kienu jaħkmu xi pajjiż Kristjan, kienu jimxu mal-poplu b'id tal-ħadid. Barra l-ħruxija ta' taxxi li kien iħallas il-poplu Malti, ir-reliġjon kattolika f'Malta ukoll ħadet daqqa ta' ħarta. Studjużi tal-istorja Maltija jemmnu li l-bini ta' knejjes u monasteri, qari tal-kotba sagri u purċissjonijiet bis-salib kienu assolutament projbiti u barra minn hekk, il-Malti ma seta' qatt iġorr armi jew jirkeb fuq ħmir bis-sarġ u lanqas jgħix f'djar kbar daqs ta' l-Għarab. Il-Maltin kellhom ukoll jimmarkaw id-djar tagħhom u ħwejjiġhom biex jintgħarfu mill-komunità Għarbija. Sabiex iħallsu inqas taxxi, xi nsara Maltin qalbu għall-Islam (Laspina, 1970). Barra minn hekk, l-Isqof ta' Malta ntbagħat il-ħabs u ma kien maħtur ħadd bħala s-suċċessur tiegħu (Castillo, 1979). L-Għarab qerdu u ddisakraw kull ma sabu u xi kitbiet jgħidu li l-gwerrier Sawada Ibn Muhammed ħa bħala rigal ġebel u rħam mill-kappelli Maltin lill-Emir ta' Susa sabiex jibni l-palazz tiegħu. Dan iż-żmien aħrax ġie fit-tmiem fis-sena 1090, meta n-Normanni ħakmu lil Malta u r-reliġjon Nisranija setgħet tiġi pprattikata b' mod liberu. Xi kitbiet juru li f'Malta reġgħet kellha Isqof għal darba oħra fis-sena 1127 (Buhagiar, 2007). F'dan iż-żminijiet, ġie introdott għall-ewwel darba f'Malta l-kult lejn Santa Katerina mill-monaċi ta' San Bażilju, li ġew f'Malta minn Sqallija u minn Pantallerija bl-għan li jikkonvertu lill-Misilmin għall-Kristjaneżmu. Il-monaċi ta' San Bażilju kienu devoti ta' bosta qaddisin, fosthom San Ġorġ u Santa Katerina ta' Lixandra, u prova ta' dan huwa indikat fil-Menoloġija ta' San Bażilju li juri xbiha ta' Santa Katerina waqt il-qtugħ tar-ras flimkien mal-filosfi ta' Massiminu qed jingħataw in-nar (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978).

 

Il-kult lejn Santa Katerina kompla jikber mal-medda tas-snin u bosta kappelli ddedikati lil din il-qaddisa setgħu nbnew. L-eqdem fdalijiet ta' kappella ddedikata lil Santa Katerina huma dawk tal-Knisja ta' Santa Katerina f'tal-Baqqari, fil-limiti taż-Żurrieq li aktarx rat il-bidu tagħha lejn tmiem is-seklu XIII (Farrugia, 2005). Is-seklu XIV ma jħallielna ebda evidenza storika fuq il-kult lejn Santa Katerina f'Malta, iżda f'rollo tas-sena 1436 insibu fost l-oħrajn li l-kanonku tal-katidral, Donnus Antonius de Astis kellu dħul minn diversi inħawi, fosthom mill-cappella di lo Zurrico (Mangion & Zerafa, 1989). Iddedikata lil Santa Katerina. Dan ir-rollo bl-isem ta' 'Quinterniolus pro concordia taxarum', ikkomissjonat mill-Isqof Senatore de Mello, jagħmel referenza għal tnax-il kappella, fosthom tnejn iddedikati lil Santa Katerina fiż-Żurrieq u ż-Żejtun (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978).

 

Lejn l-aħħar taż-Żminijiet medjevali, l-ikonografija ta' Santa Katerina turi t-tifrix u t-tisħiħ fid-devozzjoni lejn din il-qaddisa (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978). Dokument importanti tas-sena 1506, juru fiċ-ċar li l-knisja Parrokkjali taż-Żurrieq kienet iddedikata lil Santa Katerina, fejn il-knisja tar-raħal tissemma bħala 'Capella et parochie Sancte Catherine de lu Zurrico', kuntratt li sar quddiem in-nutar Consalvu Canchur. Fl-1575, fil-vista pastorali ta' Mons. Pietru Dusina, tissemma parroċċa ddedikata lil Santa Katerina fiż-Żurrieq (Mangion & Zeraf, 1989). Fir-rapport li għamel Dusina, jissemmew ukoll sittax-il kappella jew knisja ddedikati lil Santa Katerina. Dusina jiddeskrivi li f'dawn iż-żminijiet, id-devozzjoni lejn Santa Katerina kienet qawwija ħafna fiż-Żejtun, tant li kull nhar ta' tnejn, kienu bosta dawk li kienu jżuru l-knisja taż-Żejtun sabiex jitolbu l-interċessjoni tagħha fit-twegħir tagħhom (Buhagiar & Zarb, 1978). Barra minn hekk, id-devozzjoni fiż-Żejtun tant kienet kbira li sal-1794, dan ir-raħal kien jidher fil-mapep bħala 'Terrae Sanctae Catherinae' (Farrugia, 2005).

  

Il-Kavallieri Taljani tal-Ordni ta' San Ġwann, wkoll komplew ikabbru d-devozzjoni lejn Santa Katerina f'Malta. Dan jixhdu l-bini ta' żewġ knejjes iddedikati lil din il-qaddisa ġewwa l-Birgu u l-Belt Valletta. Il-Kavallieri għenew ukoll fil-bini tal-monasteru ta' Santa Katerina ġewwa l-Belt Valletta. Bosta huma l-pitturi taż-żmien il-Kavallieri li juru lil din il-qaddisa, fosthom dik ta' Mattia Preti ġewwa ż-Żurrieq, li tinsab fuq l-artal tal-kor u dik tal-katidral ta' San Ġwann, ġewwa l-kappella tal-Italja (Farrugia, 2005).

  

Id-devozzjoni lejn Santa Katerina hija tant qawwija fil-gżejjer Maltin li anki stabiliet ruħha fil-ħajja soċjali tagħna. Dan jixhdu d-diversi qwiel bħal 'il-qamħ ta' Santa Katerina it-tiben u t-tag]am jagħtina, Santa Katerina lesti x-xbiek għal ġol-kantina, Santa Katerina lejn darna mexxina' u bosta oħrajn (Farrugia, 2005).

 

Referenzi:

 

Buhagiar, M. (2007). The Christianization of Malta: Catacombs, cult centres and churches in Malta to 1530. Oxford: Hadrian Books Ltd 

Buhagiar, M., & Zarb, S. M. (1979). Saint Catherine of Alexandria: her churches, paintings and statues in the Maltese Islands. Valletta (Malta): Progress Press Ltd. 

Cartes des Isles de Malte et De Goze. in Maps of Malta, a collection of Maps located at the National Library of Malta

Castillo, D. A. (2006). The Maltese Cross: A strategic history of Malta. London: Praeger Security International

Farrugia, J. (2005). Santa Katerina ta' Lixandra, il-kult tag]ha. Retrieved July 9, 2009 from www.kappellimaltin.com 

Laspina, S. (1970). Outlines of Maltese History: Prehistoric to Modern Times. Malta: A.C. Aquilina & Co.

Mangion, A. & Zerafa, K, (1989). Santa Katerina: il-festa u s-socjetà muzikali taghha fiz-Zurrieq. Valletta (Malta): Peresso Printing Press. 

Runciman, S. (1992). The first crusade. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Scudu, M. (2005). Santa Caterina di Alessandria, martire: Ho seguito il mio signore Gesu' Cristo. Retrieved July 9, 2009 from www.donbosco/torino.it

The Imitative Self (2009). Retrieved July 16, 2009 from the Department of English, University of Illinois website: http://illinois.edu

Wettinger, G. (1986). The Arabs in Malta, in Malta: studies of its heritage and history. Valetta (Malta): Mid Med Bank

Xuereb, C. (2007). The creation of a church museum at |urrieq: a tourism potential for the south. Unpublished B.A. (Hons) Tourism Studies dissertation, Faculty of Economics, Management & Accountancy, University of Malta.


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